History 12 – Paraphrasing Activity

October 16, 2021

Citefast – use this citation maker to create your bibliography in Chicago style

You’re writing a paper on World War II.  Below are three sources that you are using for your paper.
1.   Paraphrase the text for each of the sources below.
2.  Do a foot note for each source.
3.  Do a bibliography for all three sources.

Source 1 

Author: John Allen
Book Title: Cause & Effect: World War II
Place of Publication; San Diego, CA
Publisher: ReferencePoint Press
Year: 2016                    Page: 46

Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was cynical, pragmatic, and ruthless.  He was, in fact, quite paranoid in his dealings with others, whether underlings or other heads of state.  In the late 1930s, in order to tighten his grip on power, he had instituted what became known as the Great Terror.  This weeding out of Communist Party members accused of disloyalty frequently resulted in execution on trumped-up charges.  These purges cut down tens of thousands, including nearly half of the Soviet officer corps of eighty thousand.  In short, Stalin trusted almost no one.  Yet in the summer of 1939, with tensions in Europe running high, Stalin accepted an overture from Adolf Hitler regarding a possible agreement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.  Despite their ideological differences, Stalin seemed to view Hitler as someone he could work with, a leader like himself interested in power above all.  Two of history’s most prolific murderers quickly reached terms on the future of Eastern Europe.

Source 2 

Author: Tim Cook
Article Title: Canada’s Road to the Second World War
Website Name:  The Canadian Encyclopedia
Publisher: Historica Canada
Date: 4 February, 2016
URL: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadas-road-to-the-second-world-war
Access date: Today’s date

Germany Threatens Europe

The German dictator and Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler, in power since 1933, signalled the return of Germany to a position of strength in Europe. Hitler’s frenzied speeches about restoring honour after Germany’s defeat in the First World War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles, and his orders to engage in a program of rearmament, put the ‘fatherland’ on a new course for war. His totalitarian regime spread terror by assassinating political rivals, putting his enemies into concentration camps and persecuting Jews. Hitler cajoled and lied, oscillating between aggression and conciliation to confuse his enemies, but always with a goal of guiding Germany to its full might through war.

Source 3
Author: Tony Howarth
Chapter Title: The Establishment of Fascism in Italy
Book Name: Twentieth Century History:
Place of Publication: New York
Publisher:  Longman Inc.
Year: 1987                       Page: 53

Italy entered the 1930s under the control of a man whose only fixed principles were his belief in his own importance and in the effectiveness of violence as a form of persuasion.  Obviously, not all Italians took at their face value the Fascist slogans they heard on the radio, read in the newspapers, saw on the cinema screens and street posters:

‘Believe! Obey! Fight!’
‘War is to the male what childbearing is to the female!’
‘A minute on the battlefield is worth a lifetime of peace!’

They saw, they could hardly fail to see, that these were remarkably silly messages.  The urban workers and the rural labourers, whose standards of living improved very little, were being terrorised into obedience. The anti-socialists who had welcomed the Duce in 1920 had not the slightest desire to spend even half a minute on the battlefield:  they had believed that Fasci would do all their fighting for them, against those whom they thought were enemies of a stable, orderly and respectable society.  They had prayed for a strong man to take away nasty politics, rather as small children ask Daddy to take away the pain. Once the struggle to control the masses of the people was over, they found themselves in the grip of a political loudmouth who asked them to accept the absurdity that ‘Mussolini is always right’. By that time of course, as we have seen, they had thrown away their right to disagree.