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Bibliography & Citations

Credible Hulk

What is a bibliography? 

It’s an alphabetical list of the resources (websites, articles, books, etc.) you used for your research.  Each item in the list is called a citation.


Why do I need one?

 You must credit other people’s work! If you are borrowing ideas, images, or wording from others, you must give credit to them, otherwise you are plagiarizing.


How do I make one?  

  • Use EasyBib to format your bibliography. 
  • See this guide from Concordia University (“Works Cited” is the same as “Bibliography” and MLA is the name of the most common style.)
  • Ask the librarian for help at any time.
  • See the sample at the end of this page.

Citations and Citation Styles (MLA, APA)



  • Use MLA citation style unless your teacher tells you to use another one.
  • Organize citations in alphabetical order by first word. (EasyBib will do this for you)
  • If you are citing a database (e.g., Science in Context) or online encyclopedia, you can find the citation at the end of the article.  Just copy and paste. For the encyclopedia, choose the MLA version.
  • Citing websites:
    • EasyBib will help you cite  websites.  
    • Be sure to include a publisher in your citation. (“Np” means “no publisher.”)  If you can’t find one, think twice about using the site.
    • To find out who the owner/publisher of a website is, go to and enter the domain name.  Example:  (Don’t enter the “www” part.)  The “Registrant” is the owner/publisher.

What is an annotated bibliography and how do I make one?

An annotated bibliography consists of a citation (refer to above) and the annotation. The annotation is a short (a few sentences to a paragraph) description or critique of the citation. The annotation can include any of the following:

  • a summary of the resource
  • information on the author’s background
  • highlight possible biases of the argument
  • describe strengths / weaknesses of argument
  • whether the resource was useful

An annotated bibliography begins with the citation and is followed by the annotation. Need help?  Ask one of the Teacher-Librarians, refer to the links below, or both!

SFU Library: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography
Cornell University Library Guides: How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography
Concordia University Libraries: How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography

“Darfur.” Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2015. Global Issues In Context. Web. 18 Dec. 2015. [database]
Kumar, Akshaya.  “Darfur: The Genocide America Forgot.” AlJazeera America. AlJazeera. April 18, 2014. Web. January 16, 2016. [website]
Steele, Philip. Sudan, Darfur, and the Nomadic Conflicts. New York: Rosen, 2013. [book]


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